PHP as usual all languages has a set of rules (known as Operator Precedence) that decide how complicated expressions are processed.

$myVar = 2 * 10 – 1;

Should $myVar be 19 or 18?

If you cannot decide why there are two possibilities, break them up using parentheses like this

$myVar = (2 * 10) – 1

$myVar = 2 * (10 – 1);

In the first example, 2 is multiplied by 10, then 1 is subtracted from the result, but in the second one, 1 has subtracted from 10 and multiplied by 2 makes it 18.If there is ambiguity in your expressions, PHP will resolve them according to its internal set of rules called as Operator Precedence.

The precedence of an operator is important to bind two expressions together. In the expression 2 + 5 * 3, the answer is 17 and not 21 because the “*” operator has a higher precedence than the “+” operator.

If operator precedence is equal, left to right associativity is used.

The following table lists the precedence of operators with the highest-precedence operators listed at the top.

Associativity |
Operators |
Additional Information |

non-associative | clone new | clone and new |

left | [ | array() |

non-associative | ++ — | increment/decrement |

non-associative | ~ – (int) (float) (string) (array) (object) (bool) @ | types |

non-associative | instanceof | types |

right | ! | Logical |

left | * / % | arithmetic |

left | + – . | arithmetic and string |

left | << >> | bitwise |

non-associative | < <= > >= <> | comparison |

non-associative | == != === !== | comparison |

left | & | bitwise and references |

left | bitwise | |

left | | | bitwise |

left | && | logical |

left | || | logical |

left | ? : | ternary |

right | = += -= *= /= .= %= &= |= = <<= >>= | assignment |

left | and | logical |

left | xor | logical |

left | or | logical |

left | , | many uses |

Very helpful and easy to understand!

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