Tag Archives: PHP Configuration

Install Zend Framework on Shared hosting server

If your site is hosted on Shared Server and you want to use Zend library on your project.


For Dedicated server, you have full root access and can have remote or full putty access of your server, you can install/uninstall any library as well as software in the server.
The same will be done by Server Guy on your request.


But, in this case “Shared hosting”, you should handle these either by using .htaccess file or by overriding the php.ini file, let see how you can do this.


If you need to install Zend framework what you should do is.


1. Check the document root path of your server.Use phpinfo(); php function for check.

echo phpinfo();

The below is the sreengrab of my local system, the path will be different for your server.




2. Upload Zend library into your hosting server (path : root/library/Zend)


3. Create or update your php5.ini (If you are using php5, use php5.ini file) or php.ini file.

put this line, (If you already have, add this line end of the current set, connected with ‘:’)

include_path = [DOCUMENT_ROOT]/Zend Libraray Path

ex) include_path = /home/scriptarticle/public_html/library


It’s Done !!

Now test whether the zend installed well or not, let’s echo the Zend frame work version.


require_once ‘Zend/Version.php’;
echo ‘Zend Framework Version : ‘ . Zend_Version::VERSION;


If you see your Zend version, that means your Zend framework has been installed successfully!



PHP short_open_tag = On should not be used

After a fresh installation you could find that PHP short_open_tag disabled by default in php.ini file.


You can check by using phpinfo() PHP function.

Under PHP Core setting you can find as below


Directive Local Value Master Value
short_open_tag Off Off


If “short_open_tag” is found off in your php.ini file then you cannot use short form (<? ?>) of PHP’s open tag and you must use long form of PHP tags (<?php ?>) instead, otherwise any PHP code inside these tags will not be parsed as PHP.


Drawback of PHP short_open_tag if you have enabled.


1) Setting this value to off allows for easier use alongside XML by providing the ability to use <?xml ?> inline without having to print it with PHP echo ‘<?xml version=”1.0″?>’; ?>.


With the wide spread use of XML(SOAP, XMLRPC, REST-XML) and use of these tags by other languages, the server can become easily confused and end up parsing the wrong code in the wrong context. But because this short cut has been a feature for such a long time, it’s currently still supported for backwards compatibility, but it’s recommend you don’t use them.


2) All the standard library use <?php ?>, full php tags so we can say it’s a standard, if you are open source script (distributable or portable script) writer or have PHP open sources community member then it’s always recommended to use full tag instead of short_tag as by default PHP have it disabled in php.ini settings.


3) Due to security reasons in some extent it’s advised to not to use short_open_tag.


If you still want to use short_open_tag or if you have just entered in a large application that is previously build by any other developer and he have used short_tags in many places, but your you php setting is was disabled then you should enabled short_open_tag, let me tell how you should do this quickly.


1) Open you root’s .htaccess file and add the following in that

[sourcecode language=”plain”]php_flag short_open_tag on[/sourcecode]


[sourcecode language=”plain”]php_value short_open_tag 1[/sourcecode]


2) If you php.ini access and can update any php directive and setting then open php.ini file and change
short_open_tag = Off to short_open_tag = On

It’s always advised to start Apache services after any changes in php.ini settings.



[php] ini_set( "short_open_tag", 1 ); [/php]

will not work, if you are trying to do as it (short_open_tag) is marked as PHP_INI_PERDIR in PHP < 5.3.0, which means you can’t change it with ini_set(). You can check this by below link.


Description of core php.ini directives



Check whether a PHP extension is loaded or not

How to figure out whether PHP extension is loaded or not on your page?


Usually in phpinfo() doesn’t show you all the loaded extensions in one location, it has got a separate section for each loaded extension where it shows all of its variables, file paths, etc so if there is no section for your extension name it probably means it isn’t loaded.


You can also check by below PHP function, if you know the exact name of PHP extension.


//gd represented GD Library as you usual say
if (!extension_loaded(‘gd’)) {
if (!dl(‘gd.so’)) {

Returns Boolean value true if the extension loaded and false otherwise .

Some other PHP extension related functions are


Returns an array with the names of all modules compiled and loaded


Returns an array with the names of the functions of a module


Loads a PHP extension at runtime


Note: dl() is disables in some environment and it will also disabled in PHP Safe Mode.


PHP.ini file

PHP.ini is a configuration file that is used to customize behavior of PHP at runtime.


This enables you to easy administration in Apache web server using configuration files. The settings in which upload directory, register global variables, display errors, log errors, max uploading size setting, maximum time to execute a script, libraries available and other configurations is written in this file.You can update it according to your needs.


When PHP Server starts up it looks for PHP.ini file first to load various values for settings. If you made changes in PHP.ini then you need to restart your server to check the changes be effected.


Where is my PHP.ini file?


It depends where php is installed.

The path where PHP looks for its PHP.ini file is built into PHP on compile time. To find out that path, use a PHP script/function that does a phpinfo() call.This will display a huge table of all of PHP’s configuration variables, libraries and extensions available. The path to PHP.ini can be found in the first part of that table.


In xampp it is available on path like


If you want to do some custom configurations then you can also write your own PHP.ini file. For this just copy PHP.ini file, make necessary changes in values directives according to your need rename it to PHP.ini then copy it to desired location in root of your web directory or in particular folder.But hosting should allow for running this file. The PHP runtime will take values only for settings which are specified in PHP.ini file if you are using your own, for rest of settings it will take defaults of PHP runtime. So if you are writing your own PHP.ini, keep in mind to overwrite every settings specified in web server’s PHP.ini file this can not be used as an extension of web server’s PHP.ini file.


Instead of creating new file, you can also update the configuration settings written in PHP.ini as well.


If you want some special configuration(PHP) on a single page, there are some functions available start with ini_ as follows.


ini_restore() etc.


httpd.conf (Apache Server Configuration File)

Apache Server Configuration File

Apache has a great number of directives which you can set and manipulate in order to set your server’s behavior.


Every server administrator will often update some of the directives, it all depends on their particular needs. Every person working with the Apache server is likely to encounter these directives.


Apache HTTP Server is configured by placing directives in plain text configuration files, the main configuration file is usually called httpd.conf. The Apache HTTP Server configuration file is /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf. The httpd.conf file is well-commented and mostly self-explanatory.


Changes to the main configuration files are only taken by Apache only if started/restarted.It stores information on various functions of the server, which can be edited by removing or adding a number sign “#” at the beginning of the line, thus setting values for each directive.


Apache configuration files contain one directive per line. The backslash “\” may be used as the last character on a line to indicate that the directive continues onto the next line. There must be no other characters or white space between the backslash and the end of the line.


Directives in the configuration files are case-insensitive, but arguments of directives are  case sensitive. Lines that begin with the hash character “#” are considered comments, and are ignored.


Basic Paths of httpd.conf file in Unix/Linux system.


httpd.conf on windows



Let’s discuss some most basic directives of Apache Server:




The ServerName directive is used to set the host name of the server, this is how the server identifies itself. It uses this name when responding to HTTP requests.

You can set this directive either in the server’s configuration or virtual hosts. The location of your configuration files depend on both the Apache version and Linux distribution.

[sourcecode language=”plain”]

<VirtualHost *:80>
ServerAdmin  [email protected]
DocumentRoot  /var/www
ServerName  www.examplesite.com


If the ServerName directive is not specified, the server tries to obtain it by performing a reverse DNS look-up on its IP address. You should always set a ServerName for the server explicitly; it is the only value you need to set to get your server running after installation.


You will have to use the IP address of your machine if you don’t yet have a registered domain name. Otherwise, you would need to add the domain name and IP address to the server’s hosts file- the same as you do with your PC’s hosts file. By doing this, the server checks its hosts file before consulting with the DNS server.


Assuming our domain name is www.examplesite.com and our server’s IP address is, you need to add the following line to the server’s hosts file (/etc/hosts):

[sourcecode language=”plain”]    www.examplesite.com    examplesite.com


After editing the hosts file, you need to restart (or stop and start) Apache.




The Listen directive tells Apache what IP addresses and/or ports it should listen to for incoming requests. If nothing is specified, Apache listens to all addresses and ports on the machine. The default configuration sets the server to listen to port 80, the default port for HTTP communication.


If you only specify an IP address, the server will respond to requests coming to all ports of that address (also called an interface). If only a port number is specified, then Apache responds to requests on the specified port arriving at all interfaces on the machine. If an address and port combination is supplied, then Apache only responds to those specific interface/port combinations.


If your server installation has separate configuration files, you should be able to find or set this directive in the ports.conf file.


You can find this file in the same location as your Apache configuration files (mine is /etc/apache2/ports.conf, but that might be different for other Apache versions and/or Linux distributions).


Let’s assume our example site is at IP address To set Apache to listen to ports 80 and 443, the respective default ports for HTTP and HTTPS, you need to enter the following directives in your ports.conf file:

[sourcecode language=”plain”]

Alternatively, if you want Apache to listen to ports 80 and 443 on all interfaces regardless of the IP address, you can enter the following:

[sourcecode language=”plain”]
Listen 80
Listen 443


Web User and Group


On Unix operating systems, it’s a good idea to configure Apache to run under a specific user and group instead of root. Doing so makes the server more secure and less vulnerable to attacks. Ideally, the user and group you set should not be able to login to the server (ie: have no login credentials) and no login shell; they will just be used for handling web client requests. Set the Apache user’s home directory to the web server’s document directory, usually located at /var/www or /usr/local/apache2/htdocs.

[sourcecode language=”plain”]
groupadd anyUserName
useradd -d /var/www  -g anyUserName -s /bin/false

The example above uses anyUserName as our web user and group; just use a name not reserved for other processes. -d /var/www sets the home directory of the new account to /var/www, and -s /bin/false ensures the new account has no shell access. Next, you need to modify your config file to use the new Apache user and group. If yours says:

[sourcecode language=”plain”]

Then you need to find where these variables are defined and change their values. Usually, the above directive is preceded by a comment letting you know exactly where to set the new values. Otherwise, you will just insert the new user and group name in place of the old. So your final config lines could look like this:


[sourcecode language=”plain”]
User anyUserName
Group anyUserName




Apache’s important files, like the server’s configuration, error, and log files are kept at the top of the directory tree. This location is the ServerRoot, and you can set a different value in Apache’s main config file. Depending on your installation, the default can be something like /usr/local/apache2 or /etc/apache2. Any Apache directives using a relative path will, by default, append to the root path specified in ServerRoot.


When you first install your server, the configuration and log files are placed in the ServerRoot. You can change its value to a new directory, but make sure to copy the configuration files to the new location. Also, make sure you do not to add a trailing slash to the path when you modify the value.




When an error occurs, Apache logs the error to a log file. The location of the error log is determined by the value specified using the ErrorLog directive. This file is critical because you will refer to it in order to debug errors, solve server configuration problems, and optimize the server.


If the server hosts multiple sites and you want to have separate error logs for each site, you can specify a different file and location for each site in the virtual hosts file.


If you don’t, then all sites’ errors are logged in the default error log, typically located at /usr/local/apache2/logs/error_log or /var/log/apache2/error.log (once again, depending on your installation).


Please note that the above log paths are absolute.


[sourcecode language=”plain”]
ErrorLog logs/error_log

This is a relative path. Therefore, the actual error log location is $ServerRoot/logs/error_log.


The LogLevel directive controls the level of the messages logged in the error logs. By default, it is set to warn, meaning that all messages with the value of warning and higher (as in more critical) will be logged. You can change the value of this directive to adjust the logging level to your preference.




The DocumentRoot directive sets the location of the server’s public files, like htdocs. This is the default Apache web server document directory, and its contents are readily and publicly available to clients connecting through the web. It contains the static and dynamic content to be served once the server receives an HTTP request for them. Since files and sub-directories under htdocs are available for the public, it is very important to handle permissions correctly in order to minimize the ability to compromise the server’s safety and security.


Depending on your installation, the default DocumentRoot location could be something like /var/www or /usr/local/apache2/htdocs.


If you are hosting multiple websites on the same server, you need to set a different DocumentRoot for each site. This can be done within the respective VirtualHost directive that corresponds to each site. Let’s say you have three websites on the same server (eg: www.examplesite1.com, www.examplesite2.com, www.examplesite3.com), your virtual hosts file might look something like the following:


[sourcecode language=”plain”]
<VirtualHost www.examplesite1.com>
DocumentRoot  /usr/local/apache2/htdocs/example_site1
ServerName  www.examplesite1.com

To set a separate error log for each of these domains, which is really a good idea, then your virtual hosts will like this:

[sourcecode language=”plain”]

<VirtualHost www.examplesite1.com>
DocumentRoot  /usr/local/apache2/htdocs/example_site1
ServerName  www.examplesite1.com
ErrorLog  /usr/local/apache2/logs/site1_error_log

<VirtualHost www.examplesite2.com>
DocumentRoot  /usr/local/apache2/htdocs/example_site2
ServerName  www.examplesite2.com
ErrorLog  /usr/local/apache2/logs/site2_error_log




The ServerName directive is used to set the host name of the server; this is how the server identifies itself.


The Apache service first starts as root in order to bind to the privileged port 80 for HTTP (or 443 if using SSL) because port numbers less than 1024 are only reserved to the root user. After the initial execution, children processes spawn to handle client requests which are owned by the Apache user specified in the configuration file. For this reason, you will find one root process and multiple processes belonging to the web user; this root process is the first one initiated when Apache starts. It has a process ID, and this ID is stored in the Pid file on the server. You can control the location of the Pid file by using the PidFile directive in the configuration file.


If you open the file specified in the PidFile directive, you will find a number that corresponds to the parent process ID. You can stop the Apache server by killing the process using its ID number. However, kill the process only as a last resort.


File Inclusion


It is possible to separate server configuration and settings into multiple files; in fact, some Apache installations actually do so. These multiple files can then be included in the original server config file. This approach is ideal in order to keep your config file light and clear, but it also forces you to look inside multiple files residing in different locations to completely understand how Apache is configured. In any case, below is the syntax for including external config files. Whether or not you want to use file inclusion is up to you:


[sourcecode language=”plain”]
# Include ports listing:
Include /etc/apache2/ports.conf

# Include generic snippets of statements
Include /etc/apache2/conf.d/

# Include module configuration:
Include /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/*.load
Include /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/*.conf

As you can see from the examples above, you can include a specific file by name, a directory (and thus all files therein), or multiple files by using wildcards.


Start, Stop, and Restart Apache


Every time you edit one of Apache’s configuration files, you need to restart (or stop and start) the service so that Apache can load the new configuration.
Otherwise, your changes will just remain on file for the next restart or server start. If your changes cause syntax errors in the configuration files, restarting will show you error messages concerning those mistakes. Additionally, the

Apache web server will not start until you fix those errors.


To stop the Apache server, type in the following command in the console:

[sourcecode language=”plain”]/etc/init.d/apache2 stop[/sourcecode]

To start the Apache server, type in the following command:

[sourcecode language=”plain”]/etc/init.d/apache2 start[/sourcecode]

To restart the Apache server, type in the following command:

[sourcecode language=”plain”]/etc/init.d/apache2 restart[/sourcecode]


Naturally, you must be logged in with a privileged user in order to execute these commands. You could, however, still run the above commands by adding sudo before each line. This basically tells the system that you are executing the command as a super user (hence the naming, sudo), in which case the system asks you to enter a password before it executes your command. If you don’t know that password, ask your server admin. Preceding the above commands with sudo:


[sourcecode language=”plain”]
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 stop
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 start
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart


If you have XAMPP, then you will get a User Interface to updating these directive as well as the start and stop the Apache service on a single click.


In the day to day of PHP programming I am sure you usually need to update these Apache directive, in the same way These above information will be helpful to you.


Let me know, if you need any help related to above, I’ll be glad to help you always.

Post you comment with your suggestion or queries. Thanks!


Basics of .htaccess

A .htaccess (hypertext access) file is a configuration file for use on web servers running the Apache Web Server.It is a directory-level configuration file,as the name .htaccess reflects – allow per-directory access control, e.g requiring a password to access the content.


When a .htaccess file is placed in a directory or folder, then the .htaccess file is detected and executed by the web server it is called overridden of .htaccess.

These .htaccess files can be used to alter the configuration (global configuration for that directory, and all sub-directories if there) of the Apache Web Server to enable/disable additional functionality and features that the Apache Web Server has to offer by default.
These facilities include basic redirect functionality, for instance if a 404 file not found error occurs and others, or for more advanced functions such as content/directory password protection or image hot link prevention and content type and character set setting.


.htaccess files must be uploaded as ASCII mode, not BINARY and need to CHMOD the .htaccess file to 644 or (RW-R–R–). This permission makes the file usable by the server, but prevents it from being read by a browser.Suppose if you have password protected directories and browser can read the .htaccess file, then they can get the location of the authentication file and then the list to get full access to any portion that you previously had protected.


These are some common usage of .htaccess file

  1. Authorization, authentication
  2. Rewriting URLs
  3. Blocking
  4. SSI
  5. Directory listing
  6. Customized error responses
  7. MIME types
  8. Cache Control